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If you've got plenty of burgers and beers on hand and your own stomach is full, an uninvited guest at your neighborhood barbecue won't put much strain on you.
But if you're hungry and food and drink supplies are running low when the moocher shows up, it's a different story.
New - Research - Oregon - State - University
New research at Oregon State University indicates bacteria know just how you feel.
Microbes that produce important secretions for use in a community suffer a blow to their own fitness for supplying the non-producing "cheater" bacteria - but only when production requires the same nutrients that would otherwise go into growth and biomass.
Findings - Today - Nature - Communications
Findings were published today in Nature Communications.
Bacteria are important organisms for evolutionary biology research because their fast growth allows scientists to study evolution in real time in the lab. The common, rod-shaped bacteria in the study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can lead to infections in humans, and cheater strains are often found among the infection-causing organisms.
Picture - Research - Understanding - Cooperation - Cooperation
"The big picture of this research is a better understanding of how cooperation works and how cooperation evolved," said corresponding author Martin Schuster. "We can use microbes to study social evolution. Essentially every environment is nutrient limited in some way, and our study allows us to make predictions about what types of environments are conducive to cooperation or cheating."
The study by Schuster and 2017 Ph.D. graduate Joe Sexton involved P. aeruginosa and a peptide siderophore it secretes, pyoverdine, or PVD.
P - Aeruginosa - PVD - Iron - Nutrient
P. aeruginosa uses PVD to scavenge iron, an essential and hard-to-get nutrient; the cheaters don't produce PVD but have a receptor to collect the iron the siderophore binds with.
"The secretions benefit everyone, and cheating bacteria don't participate in the production," said Schuster, associate professor in OSU's Department of Microbiology in the colleges of Science and Agricultural Sciences. "In general, cooperation is considered costly; therefore, cheaters can exploit the process...
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