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MIT researchers have now shown that they can reverse that memory loss in mice by interfering with the enzyme that forms the blockade. The enzyme, known as HDAC2, turns genes off by condensing them so tightly that they can't be expressed.
For several years, scientists and pharmaceutical companies have been trying to develop drugs that block this enzyme, but most of these drugs also block other members of the HDAC family, which can lead to toxic side effects. The MIT team has now found a way to precisely target HDAC2, by blocking its interaction with a binding partner called Sp3.
Time - Mechanism - HDAC2 - Gene - Expression
"This is exciting because for the first time we have found a specific mechanism by which HDAC2 regulates synaptic gene expression," says Li-Huei Tsai, director of MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the study's senior author.
Blocking that mechanism could offer a new way to treat memory loss in Alzheimer's patients. In this study, the researchers used a large protein fragment to interfere with HDAC-2, but they plan to seek smaller molecules that would be easier to deploy as drugs.
Picower - Institute - Postdocs - Hidekuni - Yamakawa
Picower Institute postdocs Hidekuni Yamakawa, Jemmie Cheng, and Jay Penney are the lead authors of the study, which appears in the Aug. 8 edition of Cell Reports.
In 2007, Tsai first discovered that blocking HDAC activity could reverse memory loss in mice. There are several classes of HDACs, and their primary function is to modify histones -- proteins around which DNA is spooled, forming a structure called chromatin. These modifications condense chromatin, making genes in that stretch of DNA less likely to be expressed.
Human - Cells - Dozen - Forms - HDAC
Human cells have about a dozen forms of HDAC, and Tsai later found that HDAC2 is responsible for the blockade of memory-linked genes. She also discovered that HDAC2 is elevated in human Alzheimer's patients and in several mouse models of...
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