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In the study, highlighted at the front cover of the journal, researchers used machine learning to study brain electrical activity during memory reactivation. "Using artificial neural networks, we have been able to identify electrical fotprints associated to events with similar informational content, presumably encoding the same memory trace. Using sophisticated experimental techniques we have succeeded in isolating the activity of individual neurons during these 'memories'" explains Liset Menéndez de la Prida, the Cajal Institute researcher who lead the work.
As the researchers observed in their study, activity of hippocampal cells is precisely modulated during memory trace reactivation. "We have seen that most hippocampal cells acutely respond to 'excitation' and 'inhibition' as a kind of cellular yin-yang, in such a way that the participation of individual neurons of memory traces is extremely selective," explains Manuel Valero, the first author of the paper.
Neurons - Information - Memory - 'excitation - 'inhibition
"Only those hippocampal neurons carrying information about a memory to be reactivated would receive more 'excitation' than 'inhibition' to be biased for a particular memory trace. This mechanism endows the hippocampus with the ability to reactivate individual memories without merging information."
In addition, researchers show that an imbalance between 'excitation' and 'inhibition' -characteristic of some brain diseases such as epilepsy- could be catastrophic for memories. "In epilepsy, we see a...
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