Quantum Gravity Could Reverse Cause and Effect

livescience.com | 8/28/2019 | Stephanie Pappas
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You've probably heard of Schrödinger's cat, the unfortunate feline in a box that is simultaneously alive and dead until the box is opened to reveal its actual state. Well, now wrap your mind around Schrödinger's time, a situation in which one event can simultaneously be the cause and effect of another event.

Such a scenario may be inevitable in any theory of quantum gravity, a still-murky area of physics that seeks to combine Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity with the workings of quantum mechanics. In a new paper, scientists create a mashup of the two by imagining starships near an enormous planet whose mass slows time. They conclude that the starships could find themselves in a state where causation is reversed: One event could end up causing another event that happened before it.

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"One can devise this kind of scenario where temporal order or cause and effect are in superposition of being reversed or not reversed," said study co-author Igor Pikovski, a physicist at the Center for Quantum Science and Engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey. "This is something we expect should take place once we have a full theory of quantum gravity."

Related: 8 Ways You Can See Einstein's Theory of Relativity in Real Life

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The famous Schrödinger's cat thought experiment asks a viewer to imagine a box holding a cat and a radioactive particle, which, once decayed, will kill the unfortunate feline. By the principle of quantum superposition, the cat's survival or death is equally likely until measured — so until the box is opened, the cat is simultaneously alive and dead. In quantum mechanics, superposition means that a particle can exist in multiple states at the same time, just like Schrödinger's cat.

The new thought experiment, published Aug. 21 in the journal Nature Communications,...
(Excerpt) Read more at: livescience.com
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