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You might know that our lungs are lined with hair-like projections called motile cilia. These are tiny microtubule structures that appear on the surface of some cells or tissues. They can be found lining your nose and respiratory tract too, and along the fallopian tubes and vas deferens in the female and male reproductive tracts. They move from side to side to sweep away any micro-organisms, fluids, and dead cells in the respiratory system, and to help transport the sperm and egg in the reproductive system.
Odds are, however, that you haven't heard about motile cilia's arguably more important cousin, primary cilia.
Cilia - Cells - Body - Time - Part
Primary cilia are on virtually all cells in the body but for a long time they were considered to be a non-functional vestigial part of the cell. To add to their mystery, they aren't present all the time. They project from the centrosome – the part of the cell that pulls it apart during division—and so only appear at certain stages of the cell cycle.
The first sign that these little structures were important came with the realization that disruption to either their formation or function could result in genetic conditions known as ciliopathies. There are around 20 different ciliopathies, and they affect about one in every 1,000 people. These are often disabling and life-threatening conditions, affecting multiple organ systems. They can cause blindness, deafness, chronic respiratory infections, kidney disease, heart disease, infertility, obesity, diabetes and more. Symptoms and severity vary widely, making it hard to classify and diagnose these disorders.
Organelle - Result - Variety - Symptoms - Cilia
So how can malfunction of a little organelle which was originally thought to be useless result in such a wide variety of devastating symptoms? Well, it is now known that not only do cilia look like little antennas, they act like them too. The cilia is packed full of proteins that...
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