Neonicotinoids are water-soluble insecticides that are applied to seeds or foliage. But non-target organisms such as pollinating bees can also be exposed to the substances, mainly through residues in nectar and pollen of flowering plants, which bees use to make honey. Most studies to-date have relied on correlating the presence of neonicotinoid residues in plant samples with bee declines. A few studies have measured total neonicotinoids in plants but laborious methods were used. Jay Gan and colleagues wanted to develop a simpler, more direct way to monitor neonicotinoids in living plants that would capture spatial and temporal movement of the insecticides.
The researchers developed a new type of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) probe, a device that can track concentration changes over time in...
Wake Up To Breaking News!
Sorry Mr. Franklin, we couldn't keep it.