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In semiconductor solar cells, the light is converted into an energized pair of an electron (negative carrier) and a hole (positive carrier) at the "pn junction" interface at two semiconductor layers in the cell. Donor (electron pitching; p-type) and acceptor (electron catching; n-type) molecules in each layer of the semiconductors face each other as the ideal p/n junction. To increase the number of such solar "batteries" in the cell, the large area of pn junction is required, so that a complicated "bulkhetero" pn junction, which is a folded interface like pleats, has been developed. In such a complicated structure like a maze, the generated carriers are difficult to reach output electrodes of the cell, because the molecules are arranged roughly, in other words crystallinity is low. To realize a high transport efficiently, the carrier, an electron or a hole, should delocalize between molecules as a matter wave. The ordered arrangement of molecules brings out the wave-nature of the carries.
Researchers at Institute for Molecular Science (IMS),...
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