Microgels let medical implants fight off bacteria

phys.org | 3/26/2019 | Staff
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Joint replacements are among the most common elective surgeries—but around one in 100 patients suffer post-surgical infections, turning a routine procedure into an expensive and dangerous ordeal. Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have developed a "self-defensive surface" for these implants that release targeted micro-doses of antibiotics when bacteria approach, potentially sharply reducing infection rates.

The work, led by Matthew Libera, professor of materials science at Stevens, describes a method for coating implant surfaces with a lattice of microgels: flecks, each 100 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair, capable of absorbing certain antibiotics. The microgels' behavior is regulated by electrical charges, and the electrical activity of an approaching microbe causes them to leak antibiotics, preventing infections from taking root.

Microgels - Range - Devices - Heart - Valves

Microgels could be applied to a wide range of medical devices, including heart valves, tissue scaffolds, and even surgical sutures—and with the market for hip implants alone forecasted to reach $9.1 billion by 2024, the technology has significant commercial potential. The United States Army, which helped fund the research, is also interested in deploying the technology in field hospitals, where infections currently occur in a quarter of combat injuries.

"The potential impact for patients, and for the healthcare system, is tremendous," said Libera, who chairs the Stevens Conference on Bacteria-Material Interactions. Stevens doctorate candidate Jing Liang and biomedical engineering professor Hongjun Wang collaborated on the study, which appears in the journal Biomaterials.

Infections - Microbes - Surfaces - Layers - Biofilms

Post-surgical infections are tough to beat because as microbes colonize surfaces, they form antibiotic-resistant layers called biofilms. Libera and his team disrupt this cycle by killing microbes before they can gain a foothold. "It only takes one bacterium to cause an infection," Libera said. "But if we can prevent infection until...
(Excerpt) Read more at: phys.org
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