Scientists engineer new CRISPR platform for DNA targeting

phys.org | 1/23/2019 | Staff
gemini2323 (Posted by) Level 3
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A team that includes the scientist who first harnessed the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas9 and other systems for genome editing of eukaryotic organisms, including animals and plants, has engineered another CRISPR system, called Cas12b. The new system offers improved capabilities and options when compared to CRISPR-Cas9 systems.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, Feng Zhang and colleagues at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, with co-author Eugene Koonin at the National Institutes of Health, demonstrate that the new enzyme can be engineered to target and precisely nick or edit the genomes of human cells. The high target specificity and small size of Cas12b from Bacillus hisashii (BhCas12b) as compared to Cas9 (SpCas9), makes this new system suitable for in vivo applications. The team is now making CRISPR-Cas12b widely available for research.

Team - Cas12b - C2c1 - CRISPR - Enzymes

The team previously identified Cas12b (then known as C2c1) as one of three promising new CRISPR enzymes in 2015, but faced a hurdle: Because Cas12b comes from thermophilic bacteria—which live in hot environments such as geysers, hot springs, volcanoes, and deep sea hydrothermal vents—the enzyme naturally only works at temperatures higher than human body temperature.

"We searched for inspirations from nature," Zhang says. "We wanted to create a version of Cas12b that could operate at lower temperatures, so we scanned thousands of bacterial genetic sequences, looking in bacteria that could thrive in the lower temperatures of mammalian environments."

Combination - Exploration - Diversity - Engineering - Candidate

Through a combination of exploration of natural diversity and rational engineering of promising candidate enzymes,...
(Excerpt) Read more at: phys.org
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