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Saturn's distinctive rings were observed in unprecedented detail by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, and scientists have now used those observations to probe the interior of the giant planet and obtain the first precise determination of its rotation rate. The length of a day on Saturn, according to their calculations, is 10 hours 33 minutes and 38 seconds.
The researchers studied wave patterns created within Saturn's rings by the planet's internal vibrations. In effect, the rings act as an extremely sensitive seismograph by responding to vibrations within the planet itself.
Earth - Vibrations - Earthquake - Saturn - Perturbations
Similar to Earth's vibrations from an earthquake, Saturn responds to perturbations by vibrating at frequencies determined by its internal structure. Heat-driven convection in the interior is the most likely source of the vibrations. These internal oscillations cause the density at any particular place within the planet to fluctuate, which makes the gravitational field outside the planet oscillate at the same frequencies.
"Particles in the rings feel this oscillation in the gravitational field. At places where this oscillation resonates with ring orbits, energy builds up and gets carried away as a wave," explained Christopher Mankovich, a graduate student in astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz.
Mankovich - Author - Paper - January - Astrophysical
Mankovich is lead author of a paper, published January 17 in the Astrophysical Journal, comparing the wave patterns in the rings with models of Saturn's interior structure.
Most of the waves observed in Saturn's rings are due to the gravitational effects of the moons orbiting outside the rings, said coauthor Jonathan Fortney, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz. "But some of the features in the rings are due to the oscillations of the planet itself, and we can use those to understand the planet's internal oscillations and internal structure," he said.
Mankovich - Set - Models - Structure - Saturn
Mankovich developed a set of models of the internal structure of Saturn, used them to predict the frequency spectrum...
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