New research on stem cell transplantation for myeloid cancers

ScienceDaily | 12/3/2018 | Staff
KimmyPoo (Posted by) Level 3
Here are two examples of this research:

Genetic changes that cause tumor cells to lose HLA proteins can spur relapses in patients with myeloid cancers who undergo stem cell transplants from matched, unrelated donors, Dana-Farber researchers report in a new study. The findings indicate that the loss of HLA proteins -- which are used by the immune system cell to distinguish healthy cells from diseased ones -- enable tumor cells to evade detection by the immune system and resume their proliferation.

Findings - Presentation - Session - Monday - Dec

The findings, to be reported in an oral presentation at Session 723 on Monday, Dec. 3, at 2:45 p.m. PST in Grand Hall D of the Manchester Grand Hyatt San Diego, suggest new avenues for immunological approaches to preventing relapse following transplant.

While stem cell transplants often produce remissions in patients with myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), some patients relapse a year or more after transplant. Researchers sought to determine if these late relapses are the result of genetic alterations in tumor cells that prevent transplanted immune system cells from recognizing and attacking the cancer.

Investigators - Analysis - Tumor - Tissue - Patients

The investigators conducted a genomic analysis of tumor tissue from 25 patients with AML or MDS who had relapsed after undergoing a transplant with stem cells from a fully or partially matched donor. Samples were collected prior to transplant, 100 days after transplant, and at the time of relapse. Each sample was analyzed for abnormalities in any of 187 genes involved in myeloid malignancies or suspected of enabling cells to escape detection by the immune system.

Researchers identified three patients whose tumor cells lost HLA following transplant. Two of the patients had received stem cells from fully matched donors; the other had received them from a partially matched, unrelated donor. The findings suggest that HLA loss may enable tumor cells to foil...
(Excerpt) Read more at: ScienceDaily
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