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Antibiotic resistance has spread to penguins living in the Antarctic researchers have found - but conceded more evidence is needed to prove mankind is responsible.
In a broad study into birds that carry antibiotic resistance genes, scientists compared the diversity of gut microbes in penguins living around two bases.
Researchers - University - Sydney - Birds - Microbes
Researchers from the University of Sydney wanted to compare birds that were carrying microbes resistant to antibiotics.
They found that penguins living in areas with higher human populations carried more antibiotic resistant genes than those in more remote areas.
Experts - Mankind - Germs - Regions - Birds
Experts fear mankind is spreading the germs to these remote regions where birds provide them with fertile breeding grounds and spread them among their species.
Vanessa Marcelino, who led the study, and colleagues took swabs from inside the rectums of penguins living at the sites in Antarctica.
RNA - Diversity - Expression - Levels - Antibiotic-resistance
They used RNA sequencing to reveal the diversity and expression levels of known antibiotic-resistance genes.
They found that penguins inhabiting areas near the O'Higgins Base carried more resistant genes in their bodies than those living near the less-populated Gabriel González Videla Base.
Soil - Reservoir - Resistance - Genes - ARGs
Soil is an important environmental reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are becoming more recognised as environmental contaminants.
Antarctic soil appeared to be a common reservoir for seven ARGs...
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