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Using the power and synergy of two space telescopes, astronomers have made the most precise measurement to date of the universe's expansion rate.
The results further fuel the mismatch between measurements for the expansion rate of the nearby universe, and those of the distant, primeval universe—before stars and galaxies even existed.
Tension - Implies - Physics - Foundations - Universe
This so-called "tension" implies that there could be new physics underlying the foundations of the universe. Possibilities include the interaction strength of dark matter, dark energy being even more exotic than previously thought, or an unknown new particle in the tapestry of space.
Combining observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gaia space observatory, astronomers further refined the previous value for the Hubble constant, the rate at which the universe is expanding from the big bang 13.8 billion years ago.
Measurements - Team - Determination - Hubble - Constant
But as the measurements have become more precise, the team's determination of the Hubble constant has become more and more at odds with the measurements from another space observatory, ESA's Planck mission, which is coming up with a different predicted value for the Hubble constant.
Planck mapped the primeval universe as it appeared only 360,000 years after the big bang. The entire sky is imprinted with the signature of the big bang encoded in microwaves. Planck measured the sizes of the ripples in this Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) that were produced by slight irregularities in the big bang fireball. The fine details of these ripples encode how much dark matter and normal matter there is, the trajectory of the universe at that time, and other cosmological parameters.
Measurements - Scientists - Universe - Expansion - Rate
These measurements, still being assessed, allow scientists to predict how the early universe would likely have evolved into the expansion rate we can measure today. However, those predictions don't seem to match the new measurements of our nearby contemporary universe.
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