Nanoparticles could offer a new way to help eradicate polio worldwide

phys.org | 5/21/2018 | Staff
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A new nanoparticle vaccine developed by MIT researchers could assist efforts to eradicate polio worldwide. The vaccine, which delivers multiple doses in just one injection, could make it easier to immunize children in remote regions of Pakistan and other countries where the disease is still found.

While the number of reported cases of polio dropped by 99 percent worldwide between 1988 and 2013, according to the Centers for Disease Control, the disease has not been completely eradicated, in part because of the difficulty in reaching children in remote areas to give them the two to four polio vaccine injections required to build up immunity.

Vaccine - Protection - Eradication - Ana - Jaklenec

"Having a one-shot vaccine that can elicit full protection could be very valuable in being able to achieve eradication," says Ana Jaklenec, a research scientist at MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and one of the senior authors of the paper.

Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT, is also a senior author of the study, which appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of May 21. Stephany Tzeng, a former MIT postdoc who is now a research associate at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is the paper's lead author.

Approaches - Results - Paper - Vaccines - Patients

"We are very excited about the approaches and results in this paper, which I hope will someday lead to better vaccines for patients around the world,"? Langer says.

There are no drugs against poliovirus, and in about 1 percent of cases, it enters the nervous system, where it can cause paralysis. The first polio vaccine, also called the Salk vaccine, was developed in the 1950s. This vaccine consists of an inactivated version of the virus, which is usually given as a series of two to four injections, beginning at 2 months of age. In 1961, an oral vaccine was developed, which...
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